an extra amount of insulin taken to cover an expected rise in blood glucose, often related to a meal or snack.
a former term for Type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance.
a term used when a person's blood glucose level moves often from low to high and from high to low.
a bulge on the first joint of the big toe, caused by the swelling of a fluid sac under the skin. This spot can become red, sore and infected.
Connecting peptide, a substance the pancreas releases into the bloodstream in equal amounts to insulin. A test of C-peptide levels shows how much insulin the body is making.
a small area of skin, usually on the foot, that has become thick and hard from rubbing or pressure.
a unit representing the energy provided by food. Carbohydrate, protein, fat and alcohol provide calories in the diet. Carbohydrate and protein have 4 calories per gram, fat has 9 calories per gram, and alcohol has 7 calories per gram.
the smallest of the body's blood vessels. Oxygen and glucose pass through capillary walls and enter the cells. Waste products such as carbon dioxide pass back from the cells into the blood through capillaries.
an ingredient in hot peppers that can be found in ointment form for use on the skin to relieve pain from diabetic neuropathy.
one of the three main nutrients in food. Foods that provide carbohydrate are starches, vegetables, fruits, dairy products and sugars.